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INTRODUCTION TO GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY
1.1.1. Definition of geodesy
Geodesy, also known as geodetics or Geodetic Engineering, a branch of applied
Mathematics and Earth sciences, is the scientific discipline that deals with the
measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field, in a threedimensional time-varying space. Geodesists also study geodynamical phenomena such
as crustal motion, tides, and polar motion. For this, they design global and
national control networks, using space and terrestrial techniques while relying
on datums and coordinate systems.
Geodesy from the Greek word (or geodaisia), is primarily concerned with positioning
within the temporally varying gravity field. Somewhat obsolete nowadays, geodesy, in
the German-speaking world, is divided into "Higher Geodesy", which is concerned with
measuring the Earth on the global scale, and "Practical Geodesy" or "Engineering
Geodesy", which is concerned with measuring specific parts or regions of the Earth, and
which includes surveying.
The shape of the Earth is to a large extent the result of its rotation, which causes its
equatorial bulge, and the competition of geological processes such as the collision of
plates and the volcanism, resisted by the Earth's gravity field. This applies to the solid
surface, the liquid surface (dynamic sea surface topography) and the Earth's atmosphere.
For this reason, the study of the Earth's gravity field is called physical geodesy by some.
Geodesy (n): trắc địa học
Geodesist (n): nhà trắc địa học
Gravitational field: trường trọng lực
Geodynamical phenomena: hiện tượng địa động lực
Crustal motion: chuyển động của vỏ trái đất
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